Deployment and installation

Step-by-step guideline

Once you receive the Smart Parking batch, the steps involved in the deployment of the network are:
  1. 1.
    Nodes provisioning: Once the client owns a LoRaWAN Network Server license, it is mandatory to register the nodes with the configured identifier and keys for each node. The client must decide whether they use the factory default LoRaWAN unique identifier and random private keys provided by Libelium or they prefer to configure their own identifier and keys. You must keep in mind that every node is provided "ready to install" with factory default identifier and keys. If client-configured identifier and keys are desired, then each node will have to be configured separately using the Smart Devices App. This 2nd option increases the provisioning time. So Libelium recommends using the default IDs and keys. If factory default keys are used, then a CSV file exported from Libelium Cloud can be used to ease the bulk import into the LoRaWAN Network Server. Find the factory default IDs/keys in the Node keys tool section. Please refer to the "Smart Devices App" chapter for further information about the Smart Devices App.
  2. 2.
    Libelium Cloud: It is used to receive, store and exploit data. The user can also perform remote configuration of nodes and forward data to a 3rd party cloud. The LoRaWAN Network Server must be configured to properly forward all packets to Libelium Cloud.
  3. 3.
    Nodes installation: Each node must be placed on the proper parking slot and then follow the "magnet start-up" protocol explained in the "Magnet start-up procces" section.
Figure: Smart Parking network architecture

How to place the nodes

The correct installation spot is the center of the parking slot to ensure the best detection. It is possible to install the nodes on different parking slot configurations:
  • Parallel
  • Perpendicular
  • Angled
Figure: Parallel parking slots
Figure: Perpendicular parkings lots
It is important to keep in mind that parking slots must be delimited by lines so the node is placed in the center of the parking area. Placing the nodes with no line definitions may lead into bad behaviour.

Node installation

Triple installation option

The user can choose among the 3 types of installation for the node. This table summarizes pros and cons:
On-surface installation
Semi-underground installation
Underground installation
Type of enclosure
Vaulted
Vaulted
Flat
Presence of node over the ground
Full node (40.25 mm)
Part of node (6 mm)
Node completely buried (0 cm)
Rain immunity
Yes
Yes
Partial
Puddle immunity
Yes
Yes
Detection may fail if puddle appears
Vandalism/robbery immunity
Medium
High
High
Snowplow immunity
No
Possible
Yes
Installation process,
Fast and easy
Special tools needed
Special tools needed
Tools needed
Normal drill
Industrial big crown drill. Epoxy.
Industrial big crown drill. Epoxy
Can be dismantled for maintenance
Yes
No
No

On-surface node installation

Figure: Step by step chemical fixing and anchor installation
Firstly, mark 4 holes in the asphalt. Select an area as flat and regular as possible, avoid irregularities on the terrain. You should place the enclosure in the final location and use the 4 holes as a reference to drill 4 little marks on the ground. You can also draw 4 dots with ink.
Figure: Marking the holes for the node
Then continue with the chemical fixing installation step by step as described above. Also, in the next video you can see how the installation is done chemical fixing installation.
Step 1: Drill the holes. The drill diameter must be W=14 mm minimum. Try to drill as vertical as possible to enable the best enclosure installation. The length of the hole must be about H=85 mm.
Figure: Drill the holes (step 1)
Step 2, 3 and 4: Blow out dust and loose materials. Remove all the dust and little rocks inside the 4 holes, created during the drilling operation. This is important to allow the anchors go all the way down. You can clean each hole mechanically and then use a bottle of spray duster (high-pressure air bottle). Make sure that the real depth of the hole is enough.
Figure: Brush the hole (step 3)
Figure: Blow out dust and loose materials (steps 2 and 4)
Step 5: Inject the chemical fixing. The chemical fixing shall be injected into the 4 holes carefully. You must keep in mind that this chemical adhesive must fill the complementary space the anchor leaves in the hole. So the whole hole does not have to be fully filled with adhesive because there is no space left for the anchor. The chemical adhesive quantity to be injected will depend on the dimensions of the holes.
Figure: Inject chemical fixing adhesive (step 5)
Step 6: Insert the anchors. Once the adhesive is injected, the anchor must be carefully inserted into the hole. Rotating the anchor by hand while inserting it is a good practice. Therefore, the adhesive fills and completes all the empty space left by the anchor in the hole. Once the anchor is correctly inserted, some adhesive might exceed from the hole. This residuary adhesive must be removed from the installation so the are no extra adhesive and the anchor installation is clean and smooth.
Figure: Insert the anchors (step 6)
Step 7: Finish anchors installation. The anchors have an internal thread to screw the screws. Inserting the anchors with the screws partially inserted might be a good practice in order to place the anchor correctly aligned within the hole (that means you can use the screw as a tool if it is partially inserted inside the anchor). Also, if the screw is inside the anchor, avoids that the adhesive accidentally gets inside the anchor. After cleaning the remaining adhesive from the hole, the user must wait some time until the chemical resin is solid and stable. After this period of time, the screws can be removed from the anchors and the installation is finished.
Figure: Final anchor installation (step 7)
Step 8: Place the node. Place the black rubber circle on the ground. To enable the correct screwing of the screws inside the anchors, make sure that there is no dust in the internal thread of the anchor. Install the node in its final position and screw the 4 special (anti-vandalism) screws provided. Anti-vandalism screws are recommended to avoid problems: anyone could unscrew a node if fixed with standard screws.
Figure: Place the circle rubber and the node above it
Figure: Screw the node
Figure: Final section of the anchor and screw

Underground node installation

Depending on the scenario, placing the node under the pavement can be a must. In cold places where snow is usual, installing the nodes underground permits the use of snowplow equipment without affecting the Smart Parking node. Also, this kind of installation allows the client to deploy much safer networks against vandalism or theft as the device is not accessible directly from the outside.
Figure: Snowplow vehicle
For this special installation, Libelium provides flat enclosures. Contact your Sales agent to order flat enclosures.
Figure: Flat Smart Parking enclosure dimensions
Regarding the installation process, the next steps explain how to correctly install the device under the ground:
Step 1: Drill the hole. Use a hole saw or other dedicated tool to drill a hole into the pavement bigger enough for the enclosure (minimum diameter 202 mm). Try to perforate it deep enough to insert the Smart Parking node completely without rising over the surface, be sure that the enclosure remains under the pavement line approximately 10 mm.
Figure: Making a hole in the pavement
Step 2: Place the node into the pavement hole. Below the device, a layer of cement must be spread to elevate the device to the correct horizontal position independently of the depth of the hole. The diameter of the hole must be at least 202 mm.
figure: Placing the node in the hole
Step 3: Fill the hole. Finally, the node needs to be fixed to the pavement using Epoxy resin (commonly used for filling road fissures). This resin should fill all the space between enclosure and pavement. Also, it should completely cover the top of the enclosure ensuring protection against water, bad environmental conditions and vandalism. The Epoxy resin tested by Libelium provides a curing time around 6-12 hours at 20 ºC and RH 50%. So the parking installation must not be used prior this curing time.
Figure: Preparing the Epoxy resin mixture
In this installation, it is crucial that the upper side of the enclosure is not covered with Epoxy or other material. Only the side slides can be covered, the center of the node must be clean to allow the radar signal work properly.
Figure: Final Epoxy application
Step 4: Start the node using the magnet. Proceed with the "Magnet start-up" process in order to initialize the node.

Semi-underground node installation

This is a possible installation in order to provide vandalism immunity and also rain/puddle immunity. So the node partially inserted in the ground and the vaulted enclosure minimizes the water issues.
The same underground installation steps must be followed as seen in the previous section. In the node placement step, the vaulted enclosure must exceed the horizontal pavement layer by 6-7 mm approximately. The next figure shows how the node is placed:
Figure: Semi-underground node installation

Node start-up

After the node is installed, you must follow the "Magnet start-up" steps explained in the "Magnet start-up process" section. This process is based on 3 consecutive magnet resets waiting at least one second between each reset. In the future need of resetting the node manually, just a single magnet reset will be needed.
Once the node has been started, it will begin to run the firmware step-by-step as explained in the "How the node works" section.
In the next video you can see how the "magnet start-up" is performed: magnet start-up.
Figure: Using the magnet to start the node

Working example

The next diagram explains how the node program works when the node is installed and started when the parking slot is free. On the left column you can see the parking slot status during the execution. On the right side you can see the frame types that are sent to Libelium Cloud depending on parking slot status changes, elapsed time and user configuration changes.
Figure: Smart Parking node working example

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