Long range tests

Line of Sight test

The Line of Sight (LOS) tests were taken between two different points next to the surrounding area of Zaragoza (Spain). The emitter was set in the point A : viewpoint of 'La Plana de Cadrete'. The receiver was set in the point B: viewpoint of the village of Alfocea. These points are 21.6 km (13.4 miles) apart.

Figure: Map of the LOS long range tests in Zaragoza

The following picture represents the profile of the link. The blue line indicates the line of sight conditions taken in the test. Besides, the purple ellipse indicates the Fresnel zone clearance achieved in this path.

Figure: Profile of the LOS path

Test features:

  • Several LoRa modes, frequency channels and output-power modes were tested in order to know the performance of the LoRa module depending on great distances

  • All packets were set to a fixed 90-byte payload

  • More than one hundred attempts were performed in every trial

Results:

LoRa Mode

Range

Power

Channel

Success (%)

Mean SNR (dB)

Mean RSSI (dBm)

Mean RSSI packet (dBm)

Sensitivity (dB)

Margin (dB)

Mode 1

21.6 km

(13.4 miles)

High

CH_12_868

100

-9.79

-113.72

-126.79

-134

7.21

Mode 1

21.6 km

Max

CH_12_868

100

-4.33

-113.76

-121.76

-134

12.24

Mode 1

21.6 km

High

CH_16_868

100

-10.06

-114.28

-127.06

-134

6.94

Mode 1

21.6 km

Max

CH_16_868

100

-3.20

-113.97

-120.21

-134

13.79

Mode 3

21.6 km

High

CH_12_868

95

-10.29

-114.16

-127.29

-129

1.71

Mode 3

21.6 km

Max

CH_12_868

95

-3.73

-114.08

-120.73

-129

8.27

Mode 6

21.6 km

High

CH_12_868

99

-14.77

-107.22

-125.77

-125.5

-0.27

Mode 6

21.6 km

Max

CH_12_868

100

-8.42

-106.60

-119.43

-125.5

6.07

Mode 9

21.6 km

High

CH_12_868

0

-

-

-

-117

-

Mode 9

21.6 km

Max

CH_12_868

49

-9.95

-107.68

-120.95

-117

-3.95

Non Line of Sight tests

Tests in Zaragoza

The Non Line of Sight (NLOS) tests were taken between several points in the surrounding areas of the Libelium's headquarters in Zaragoza (Spain).

The receiver was a Meshlium device, installed on the roof of the Libelium's headquarters. The emitter was set in several points in order to know the performance of this module in NLOS conditions within a city area.

Figure: Map of the NLOS long range tests in Zaragoza

Test features:

  • Lora Mode 1: maximum range

  • Maximum output power: 14 dBm

  • Frequency channel: CH_12_868 in the 868 MHz band

  • Packets were set to a Waspmote Frame reaching around a 80-byte payload

  • Fifty attempts were performed for every point

Results:

Point

Range (m)

Number of Buildings (signal going through)

Success (%)

Mean SNR (dB)

Mean RSSI (dBm)

Mean RSSI packet (dBm)

Margin (dB)

Point1

830

4

96

-7.89

-112.95

-124.89

9,11

Point2

960

14

92

-14.26

-111.26

-131.26

2,74

Point3

1070

6

98

-3.22

-114.14

-120.24

13,76

Point4

1530

14

98

-13.16

-112.24

-130.16

3,84

Point5

863

6

100

-3.42

-113.48

-120.42

13,58

Paths description:

  • Point 1: The signal goes through four buildings. Three high-rise housing buildings and a low building do not permit to have line of sight in this path. Then, an open space is found in the way to the receiver.

  • Point 2: The signal goes through fourteen buildings. In this case, a large group of low residential houses are close to the point 2. Also, a residential block is found in the way to the receiver.

  • Point 3: The signal goes through six buildings. This point is placed at the side of a big square of the neighborhood. The path finds out a big residential building and after this, some industrial buildings too.

  • Point 4: The signal goes through fourteen buildings. This is the largest path. This point comes across four high residential buildings. Then there is an open space with no obstacles before reaching another group of high housing buildings again. Finally, several industrial buildings are found before ending the path to the receiver.

  • Point 5: The signal goes through six buildings. This point is separated from the receiver by several industrial buildings with no open spaces between them.

Tests in Paris

These tests were developed in an office area in Paris city. The transmitter is outside the first floor of an office building, at a height of about 3 meters. The receiver is at street except in one of them that is situated bellow ground floor, in a garage. There is no line of sight between the points.

Figure: Map of the long range test in Paris
Figure: Detail of the garage test point